Connery Returns: “Diamonds are Forever” (1971)

James Bond (Sean Connery- at 40 y.o. w/ bushier eyebrows) has a new mission- find out who has been smuggling diamonds. He takes on the identity of “transport consultant” Peter Franks and joins up w/ Tiffany Case (Jill St. John), an American diamond smuggler. Mr. Wint (Bruce Glover- father of Crispin) and Mr. Kidd (Putter Smith) are the dangerous/eccentric duo tailing Bond. Ernst Stavro Blofeld (Charles Gray- who played a British ally in You Only Live Twice) also has his hand in this game; he has changed his looks (again). Can Bond finally defeat his ultimate enemy?

M: We do function in your absence, Commander.

George Lazenby was asked to make a second Bond movie, but declined. Burt Reynolds was the first choice to replace him, but was unavailable. Roger Moore was offered the role of Bond, but he was unavailable due to his commitment to a TV series. Tall/handsome Mexican-American actor John Gavin (best known for his supporting role in Psycho) was signed to play Bond in this movie. Adam West turned down the role b/c felt that Bond should be a British actor. Michael Gambon turned down the role because he was “in terrible shape.” At the last minute, Connery agreed to return as Bond; Connery was paid $1.25M (a figure unheard of in those days); he donated it to the Scottish Education Fund (which is awesome)! Albert R. Broccoli insisted that Gavin be paid the full salary, for which his contract called.

[Tiffany Case opens the door almost nude]

Bond: That’s quite a nice little nothing you’re almost wearing. I approve.

Tiffany: I don’t dress for the hired help. Let’s see your passport, Franks.

[Bond gives her his passport. She looks it over]

Tiffany: Occupation: Transport Consultant? It’s a little cute isn’t it? I’ll finish dressing.

Bond: Oh, please don’t, not on my account.

Tiffany (the first American Bond Girl) is argumentative, loud, and brash when compared to previous Bond girls; she was meant to be a commentary on American women. Actresses considered for the role of Tiffany included Raquel Welch, Jane Fonda and Faye Dunaway. Jill St. John had originally been offered the part of Plenty O’Toole, but landed the lead after impressing director Guy Hamilton during screentests. Tiffany’s home was actually owned by Kirk Douglas- how cool!

[Mr. Kidd spots Bond and Tiffany at the airplane. He returns to his seat]

Mr. Kidd: [to Mr. Wint] They’re both aboard. I must say Miss Case seems quite attractive…

[pause]

Mr. Kidd: …for a lady.

[Mr. Wint glares at Mr. Kidd]

Mr. Kidd: Heh heh heh heh!

[Mr. Wint, unamused, still glares at Mr. Kidd]

Producers cast Lana Wood (sister of Natalie) as Plenty O’Toole after seeing her in Playboy. Her voice was dubbed and she is standing on a box for some of her scenes w/ Connery (b/c even in high heels, she was too small to fit into the frame w/ him). Unlike her sister, Lana is a very wooden (pardon the pun). Willard Whyte (Jimmy Dean- best known for his sausage commercials) was based on Howard Hughes. Whyte owned the Whyte House in this movie; Hughes owned a real Las Vegas hotel (the Desert Inn). Dean was an employee of Hughes at the Desert Inn; he later confessed that he was uneasy portraying a fictional version of his boss. Shady Tree (Leonard Barr) is based on veteran Vegas comedian Shecky Greene.

[while fumbling inside the pipeline, Bond sees a rat]

Bond: Well, one of us smells like a tart’s handkerchief. [sniffs] I’m afraid it’s me. Sorry, old boy.

One of the first things I noticed re: this movie- it looks a BIT cheap (and NOT only b/c it’s set mainly in Vegas). Because of Connery’s high fee, the special effects budget was scaled back. Bond’s escape through a moon landing “movie set” refers to the popular conspiracy theory of the time that the real moon landings were faked. This may be confusing to some (younger) viewers- LOL! The Moon Buggy was inspired by an actual N.A.S.A. vehicle, but w/ additions like flailing arms (as the producers thought it didn’t look “outrageous” enough). It was capable of road speeds; the fiberglass tires had to be replaced during the chase sequence b/c the heat and desert soil ruined them.

Some scenes here have NOT aged well! Plenty is caught by some thugs, wearing nothing but her underwear and high heels, and tossed into the pool. Some fans/critics noted that this has misogynistic undertones. The same can be said of the opening teaser scene where Bond interrogates a woman by pulling up her bikini top and nearly strangling her w/ it. Wint and Kidd hold hands in one scene and banter like a romantic couple; some viewers felt this portrayal wasn’t so bad, but others called it homophobic.

[1] …Sean Connery is back–too bad the film, in many ways, sucked. That’s because by now, the plots seemed more like comic books and the character of Bond seemed more like self-parody than anything else. While in the past Connery played his character rather straight, here he was playing a smirking and smug guy–as if he was looking at the camera and saying “ain’t I cute?”

[2] …we have a tacky script that relies too much on slapstick and unfocused direction. And the acting is not great, Sean Connery is my favourite Bond mainly due to his suavity and charisma but he seems bored and uninterested here and gives an unusually flat performance in the role…

[3] The globe-trotting action takes in Amsterdam and Las Vegas this time around, culminating with an explosive action set-piece on an oil rig in the Atlantic. There are many varied locations used, from action in hotel rooms, circuses, gambling halls and even the desert. There are only two chase scenes in the movie but both are goodies… […] Finally, the action set-pieces are also rather good. The standout is a fight to the death in an old-fashioned lift, of all places, featuring Connery going fist-to-fist with boxer Joe Robinson.

[4] When he first showed up on screen I was taken aback by his aged appearance, looking quite much older than his forty years at the time. […] Story wise, the diamond smuggling concept started out strong but seemed to get frittered away as the film progressed.

-Excerpts from IMBD reviews

“The Godfather: Part II” (1974) starring Al Pacino & Robert De Niro

[Don Cicci is threatening to kill young Vito]

Signora Andolini: But Vito is only nine. And dumb-witted. The child cannot harm you.

The early buzz on The Godfather (1972) was so positive that a sequel was planned before filming ended. Francis Ford Coppola re-wrote the entire script over a weekend b/c Al Pacino said he didn’t like the original and wouldn’t do the film. Later, he admitted to Coppola that he hadn’t actually disliked the first script all that much, but knew it could be better. Pacino was paid $500,000 plus a 10% share of the profits; he’d earned only $25,000 for the first film. Since Coppola had such a difficult time directing The Godfather, he asked to pick a different director for the sequel (and take the title of producer for himself). He chose Martin Scorsese, but the film executives rejected the idea; Coppola agreed to direct again and was given a lot of creative freedom.

Only the scenes about the young Vito Corleone (Robert De Niro) have any basis in Mario Puzo’s book. The story re: Michael (Al Pacino) and family in Las Vegas is unique to the film. De Niro (just 30 y.o.) had screen tested for Sonny; Coppola was so impressed that he called him back again to audition for Vito. De Niro (who is 25% Italian) lived in Sicily for 3 mos. and studied the Sicilian language for 4 mos. – wow! This was the first sequel to receive 5 Academy Award noms for acting: Talia Shire (Best Actress in a Suporting Role), Lee Strasberg (Best Actor in a Supporting Role), Michael V. Gazzo (Best Actor in a Supporting Role) and Pacino (Best Actor); De Niro took home the Oscar for Best Actor in a Supporting Role.

Sen. Geary: I despise your masquerade, the dishonest way you pose yourself. You and your whole f*****g family.

Michael: We’re both part of the same hypocrisy, senator, but never think it applies to my family.

The communion party here is a stark contrast to Connie’s wedding in Part I; it is out on Lake Tahoe (and for show/publicity), lacks culture (Frank Pentangeli laments that there is no traditional Italian food/songs), and (above all) seems emotionally cold. Sen. Geary (G.D. Spradlin) intentionally mispronounces “Corleone.” There is the awkward photoshoot w/ the donation check Michael gave to the local university. Before he died, Vito admitted to Michael that he hoped he’d a “big shot” who “pulled the strings” (like a governor or senator). We see Michael rebuffing the demands of the (openly racist) Sen. Geary, and making demands of his own. He is seeking respectability (still) and also trying to expand his empire to Cuba (w/ the help of Hyman Roth, played by renown acting teacher Lee Strasberg). Pacino requested that Strasberg take on this role, as he admired the man’s talent so much!

[during the play ‘Senza Mamma’]

Genco Abbandando: Vito, how do you like my little angel? Isn’t she beautiful?

Vito Corleone: She’s very beautiful. To you, she’s beautiful. For me, there’s only my wife and son.

In flashback, we see the life of young Vito Andolini; his father was killed for insulting a powerful man, Don Cicci. Soon after, his older brother (in hiding) was killed. When his mother (boldly) appealed to Don Cicci, she was shot/killed also. Vito was hidden by some (brave) neighbors and travelled alone to Ellis Island. The clerk thinks that Vito’s surname is the name of his hometown (Corleone). Then the boy is put into quarantine for several weeks in a tiny room from where he can see the Statue of Liberty. Wow, what an impactful series of scenes (w/o much dialogue)!

Michael Corleone: My father taught me many things here – he taught me in this room. He taught me: keep your friends close, but your enemies closer.

As one astute reviewer noted: “The Godfather Part II is not really a movie about the mafia, it is a movie about a man’s life long struggle.” While Vito’s empire was built on respect, Michael’s empire is built on fear. Look at the way Michael treats his own family- yikes! He doesn’t even acknowledge the fiance of his younger sister Connie (who he compares to a “whore”). Connie (Talia Shire) has lived overseas, trying to escape issues at home; she hasn’t spent much time w/ her kids (which concerns Mama). As for older brother Fredo (John Cazale), he’s still handling the hotel/casino end of the business, but wants to do more. His blonde/buxom wife gets drunk and flirts openly w/ other men. Michael is embarrassed by her behavior; Fredo is emasculated as he can’t control his wife (w/o intervention from bodyguards). There is an (obvious) distance between Michael and his adopted older brother/lawyer, Tom Hagen (Robert Duvall), who is no longer privy to certain aspects of the biz. Kay (Diane Keaton) is still around, BUT we can sense the tension in the marriage; Michael had promised her that the biz would be “legitimate” several years ago. Then there is the audacious shooting in their bedroom; hitmen were able to come onto the estate w/o being noticed!

Vito Corleone: I make him an offer he don’ refuse. Don’ worry.

In 1920, Vito is already married w/ a baby son (Sonny) and delivering groceries in Little Italy; he is a quiet and observant young man. His best friend Genco (Frank Sivero) takes him to a show to see the actress he has a crush on. They see a flashily-dressed local man, Don Fanucci (Gaston Moschin), threatening the actress and her father backstage w/ a knife; Genco said they need to get out of there. It turns out that Don Fanucci is pushing around local businessmen; Vito loses his job b/c his boss (who is like a father to him) is forced to hire the don’s nephew. Vito handles this disappointment well, not even taking the box of food offered to him. We sense that somehow he will find a way to provide for this family. Enter Clemenza (a very young Bruno Kirby- best known for When Harry Met Sally), who is a petty criminal who asks Vito for help. Vito seizes the opportunity, hiding a bedsheet folded up w/ handguns in his apt.

This is NOT your typical sequel; it’s a mix of a sequel and prequel (as many viewers have commented). The two stories have distinct looks, as they take place in different time periods (mainly the early 1920s and late 1950s), and b/c of their different tones. Though Michael’s world is much bigger in scope than young Vito’s, it lacks the warmth of a happy home/family and close friendships/connections. Michael has distanced himself so far from his Italian/immigrant roots that he no longer recognizes the values of his father’s generation. Is Michael the villain and Vito the hero (some viewers have wondered)? De Niro (youthful/slim/handsome) knows how to play subtlety; he just becomes the character! You will even see a few gestures that Brando used, but they come off as natural.

[1] Al Pacino’s performance is quiet and solemn… He is cold and ruthless, with a whole contrast from the idealistic innocent war hero we initially met at the beginning of the first film…

De Niro’s rise, from an orphan child by a family feud back in Italy to a hood in New York and his position as a respected Don, provides a welcome break from Pacino’s relentless attitude…

[2] Al Pacino is the standout in the ensemble cast and its amazing how his eyes have changed from the first part. They are now cold , ruthless and unemotional and betray the price which Michael Corleone has paid for power.

[3] Without spoiling, I will simply say the Robert De Niro as the young Vito is the best acting performance of all time, a role for which he won a richly deserved Oscar.

[4] Nino Rota’s musical score plays an even greater role in this equal but different successor than it did in the predecessor. Yearning, lamenting, stimulating bygone ages, see how infectiously Nino Rota’s music affects our sentiments for the savage events on screen. It is the pulse of the films.

-Excerpts from IMDB reviews

“The Godfather” (1972) starring Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, James Caan, Diane Keaton, & Robert Duvall

Don Corleone: …a man who doesn’t spend time with his family can never be a real man.

The Godfather is “Don” Vito Corleone (Marlon Brando- age 47), the head of the Corleone mafia family in New York. Brando wanted to make his character “look like a bulldog,” so he stuffed his cheeks w/ cotton for his audition. For the filming, he wore a mouthpiece made by a dentist. On the day of his daughter Connie’s (Talia Shire) wedding, he is meeting w/ several members of his (Italian-American) community on his estate on Staten Island. There is a saying that the Don’s adopted son/lawyer, Tom Hagen (Robert Duvall- age 40 and wearing a bad hairpiece), says: “no Sicilian can refuse a favor at his daughter’s wedding day.” Michael (Al Pacino- not yet famous at age 31), the Don’s youngest son/decorated WWII Marine, is also present w/ his blonde/WASP girlfriend, Kay Adams (Diane Keaton- only 25). Pacino and Keaton started dating during filming and were a couple for 5 years. Michael seems thoughtful and introverted, as well as uninterested in the family business. Don Corleone is an influential man w/ connections to businessmen, politicians, judges, and celebs. He can be kind/generous to those who give him respect, but ruthless against those who don’t. When a dangerous rival wants to sell drugs, and needs the Don’s agreement, he says no way! His oldest son Sonny (James Caan) seems to disagree. What follows is a clash between the Don’s “old-school” values and the ways of the new generation.

Don Corleone [to Sollozzo]: I said that I would see you because I had heard that you were a serious man, to be treated with respect. But I must say no to you and let me give you my reasons. It’s true I have a lot of friends in politics, but they wouldn’t be so friendly if they knew my business was drugs instead of gambling which they consider a harmless vice. But drugs, that’s a dirty business.

I saw some scenes (over the years) of this iconic movie; however, I don’t recall seeing it fully until this past week! Director Francis Ford Coppola (only 33) had received some notice for one earlier movie; he was young and untested like much of the cast. He wasn’t enthusiastic about making this movie (at first); he thought the book by Mario Puzo was too sensational. I learned that he feared being fired by the studio for the first 2 weeks of filming! The unique (dark) lighting chosen by cinematographer Gordon Willis also made the execs worried, until they were convinced that this showed the shady ways of the Corleones. Willis earned the nickname “The Prince of Darkness” w/ the choices that he used; it turned out well (of course). Brando (due to heavy prosthetic makeup) is usually lit from above. Michael is brightly-lit in the first act of the film (before the Don is shot). Then the lighting scheme changes; we see half of his face in shadow. Once he has transitioned to the head of the family, dark shadows appear over his eyes. Caan (playing a loud/hot-headed man) is usually more well-lit than Duvall (who is calm, soft-spoken and tactful in his speech). Did you know that Caan improvised the part where Sonny throws the FBI photographer’s camera to the ground? Kay’s face usually looks bright; Keaton was lit from the side. However, I wasn’t a fan of the wigs (or hairdos) they chose for Kay. She is dressed in shades of red for most of the movie (a red/white spotted dress at the wedding, a maroon dress at the hotel dinner, and a bright red hat and coat when she goes to the estate).

Michael: My father is no different than any powerful man, any man with power, like a president or senator.

Kay: Do you know how naive you sound, Michael? Presidents and senators don’t have men killed.

Michael: Oh. Who’s being naive, Kay?

There is much to admire here, but the most important thing is that we really care for these characters and go on a fascinating journey. As Roger Ebert commented (after the 25th anniversary): “In this closed world, The Godfather is the good guy. He is the hero that we root for.” I was esp. impressed by Brando when the Don becomes injured/weak; as for the tough-guy moments (we know he can do those well). Pacino (youthful/handsome) gives a nuanced performance (which may be a surprise to younger viewers); it’s almost all in the eyes (as we find w/ the finest of screen actors). We don’t see the angry/volatile side of Pacino (Coppola’s first choice for the role) until the final act when he yells at Kay. I learned that the studios wanted Robert Redford or Ryan O’Neill for the role of Michael- LOL! Martin Sheen (w/ long hair and a mustache) auditioned for the role also; you can see some clips of screen tests on YouTube. All the supporting cast (incl. those who came from open calls, such as Abe Vigoda) suit their roles well. Look out for two veterans from the Golden Age of Hollywood- Richard Conte (the smooth-talking Don Barzini) and Sterling Hayden (the racist/crooked cop- Chief McCluskey). Both Conte and Hayden are in fine shape; they were known for noir films (I got into this genre over quarantine life). Fredo (John Cazale) doesn’t have a big role here, but I learned that he will feature more in The Godfather: Part II. He received much acclaim (from his peers and critics), died rather young, and was engaged to Meryl Streep.

This movie appeals to many people across the decades all around the world. One critic said: “It’s a simple story about a king and his three sons.” I’m sure it was rare to see a well-developed story of immigrants and first-gen Americans (w/ dark hair and olive/tan skin tones), even in the early 1970s. Having a Italian-American director must’ve been a great asset; it was Coppola’s idea to incorporate a real Italian-speaking wedding band, non-actors (incl. members of his own family), scenes which reflect everyday life (w/ kids running around, cooking, domestic disputes, etc.) There is the gorgeous/romantic sequence shot in Sicily where (some critics say) Michael finds true love (Appolonia) and happiness for the first time. When I saw the chaste courtship scenes between Michael and Appolonia (and her extended family) , I was reminded of the stories of my own family (parents, aunties, and uncles) who grew up in Bangladesh. This is a must-see film you can’t refuse!

The First Summer Blockbuster: “Jaws” (1975) starring Roy Scheider, Robert Shaw, & Richard Dreyfuss

This is the first movie to gross $100M and become known as a “Summer blockbuster.” Though it went over-budget and over-schedule, it left a big impression on pop culture (and launched the career of director Steven Speilberg). I learned that Speilberg, actor Richard Dreyfuss, and composer John Williams were only 26 y.o. when working on Jaws. This was Dreyfuss’ second movie after American Graffiti (directed by Speilberg’s friend, George Lucas). Dreyfuss was already getting a rep as a bit of a “diva” (and he had turned down his role twice). He and British actor Robert Shaw had a combative relationship on set.

I’d never paid much attention to this movie when it was on TV; I watched it fully this past weekend. Aside from the mechanical shark close-ups, I thought it was pretty good! The (iconic) theme is hard to forget; at first, Speilberg thought Williams was joking re: using it. The movie actually has two acts- first we see the shark attacks and how the small-town reacts, then we have the three men facing off against the Great White shark. There are colorful extras (who were locals), fine character moments (unlike most big-budget action movies we see today), and a nice build-up of tension. There is a lot of handheld camera work done on the water.

On Amity Island, Chief Martin Brody (Roy Scheider) is a fish out of water- no pun intended. He’s a former NYPD cop, new to the job of police chief, and a family man (w/ a loving wife and two adorable young sons). His wife, Ellen (Lorraine Gary), even jokes that he doesn’t sound like the locals. Brody doesn’t like the water, preferring to sit on the beach. In the big city, he didn’t think he was making a difference. After the teen girl is found on the beach w/ her body mangled, Brody wants to close the beach. The mayor, city council, and local business people are very concerned re: the economy. Yup, this has resonance today (when a few governors want to open their states during the coronavirus pandemic)! Brody feels like he’s not being heard; he’s concerned re: his family. He and his younger son share a sweet moment at the dinner table when the boy mimics his father.

After the young boy is killed, locals realize the gravity of the situation, and (suddenly) fishermen flock to the island to hunt down the shark for a hefty reward. A young scientist, Matt Hooper (Dreyfuss w/ a fluffy beard), from the Oceanic Institute arrives to assist Brody. I thought it was interesting how Hooper was uncomfortable seeing the body at the morgue. Later on, he comes to the Brody’s house, bringing along two bottles of wine. Hooper comments that he didn’t know whether they’d like white or red wine. These are among the little touches that add to the film. It’s fun to watch Dreyfuss, who has humor, high energy, and touches of arrogance w/ his intelligence.

As the eccentric fisherman, Quint, Shaw has some meaty scenes (one of which reveals why he’s so invested in finding the shark). Unlike Brody and Hooper (who are a bit nerdy), Quint is more of the typical “macho man” we expect in action films. Quint’s tale of the USS Indianapolis was conceived by playwright Howard Sackler, lengthened by screenwriter John Milius (another friend of the director), and rewritten by Shaw. The famous line- “We’re gonna need a bigger boat”- was improvised by Scheider. The movie is quite different (and many argue- better) than the novel by Peter Benchley.

“Star Trek: The Motion Picture” (1979)

Well, that’s it. We gave it our best shot, it wasn’t good, and it will never happen again. -William Shatner’s first thoughts on viewing this movie

[1] Everything is very straight-faced and sincere. To introduce someone to Star Trek with this film would be a bad idea.

[2] The Enterprise is much more of a physical ship traveling in space, and less of a device to facilitate storytelling.

[3] ...most of the film has the crew standing on the bridge, gazing out in awed-wonderment at all the expensive, and impressive, special effects…

-Excerpts from IMDB comments

I learned that this movie is often derided as Star Trek: The Motionless Picture. So, what’s good about this movie!? The original TOS actors, particularly Nimoy, do the best w/ what they get (which is not much good dialogue). We don’t see much of their chemistry or friendship; everyone seems cold and distant. If you love TOS and/or grew up w/ it in the ’60s or saw reruns in ’70s, then this isn’t a total waste of time. If you’re not much of a fan, then go ahead to the second film (which is great). They basically pretend like this one never happened- LOL! There is a fun scene where Dr. McCoy (DeForest Kelley) is sporting a full beard and (very ’70s) casual outfit w/ chunky gold necklace. Also, Gene Roddenberry loved the (now iconic) main theme from the musical score, which he reused for Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG). Below this review is the scene which I thought was done very well.

The original script was written by Roddenberry and titled “The God Thing” though it was rejected by Paramount executives b/c of the storyline in which the Enterprise crew meet God. Many other story ideas were considered: preventing JFK’s assassination, becoming the Greek Titans, and trying to prevent a black hole from swallowing the galaxy. The popularity of Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (1977) had a big impact on the story, pacing, and marketing of TMP. Many sci-fi fans (incl. writers) viewed Star Wars as fantasy and fluff. Roddenberry always saw Star Trek as a more serious endeavor. The story was pushed toward more complex ideas; the decision was made to have no battle scenes (which hurt the movie). The early promos for newspaper ads had as the line “There is no comparison.”

Orson Welles narrated trailers for this film- a voice familiar to classic film fans! Director Robert Wise was also the editor on Citizen Kane (1941); he also reedited and reshot The Magnificent Ambersons (1942). Welles held a grudge against Wise b/c of the latter work; he probably recorded the trailers b/c he needed money. Wise (who was unfamiliar w/ Star Trek) was convinced to take on the directing job by his wife Millicent (a huge fan of TOS). She also convinced Wise to campaign for Leonard Nimoy’s return. Nimoy agreed to do the film only after Paramount agreed to a settlement of his lawsuit for allowing his TV series likeness to be used by advertisers. Wise (best known for West Side Story and The Sound of Music) is sadly not in his element here; his directing style contributes to its slow pace.

The producers and cast were worried about their appearances after being away from TOS for 10 yrs. In the later movies, the aging of the crew became part of the story. The cast hated the uniforms (as did viewers). One of the cast’s conditions for returning for a sequel was to have new uniforms. It was understood in the script, but not said outright, that Cmdr. Will Decker (Stephen Collins- who also didn’t watch TOS) was the son of Commodore Matthew Decker from The Doomsday Machine. Persis Khambatta (who played Lt. Ilia) was a model from India; she had her head shaved for the role. She has very little to do, though it is rare to see a Hollywood newcomer/woman of color at that time in such a big production. The abandoned TV series (Phase II) was to have three new main characters. Paramount was concerned that Shatner might ask for too much money (if the series was extended). Decker was created, so that once Kirk had to be written out, he could take on the new lead role. Will Riker and Deanna Troi on TNG were later incarnations of Decker and Ilia.

As many have pointed out before, Klingons continue to be the one-note baddies; they were not developed until TNG. The Klingon words spoken by the Klingon captain were invented by James Doohan (Cmdr. Scott). Linguist Marc Okrand later devised grammar and syntax rules for the language, along w/ more vocabulary words in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), and wrote a Klingon dictionary. Doohan also devised the Vulcan words heard during Spock’s Kolinahr ceremony. The scenes were first shot in English, but when it was decided to use Vulcan, Doohan wrote lines (to fit the existing lip movements).